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000-190 - AIX Basic Operations V5 - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-190
Exam Name : AIX Basic Operations V5
Questions and Answers : 134 Q & A
Updated On : December 11, 2018
PDF Download Mirror : 000-190 Brain Dump
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000-190 Questions and Answers

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000-190 AIX Basic Operations V5

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000-190 exam Dumps Source : AIX Basic Operations V5

Test Code : 000-190
Test Name : AIX Basic Operations V5
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 134 Real Questions

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IBM IBM AIX Basic Operations

Phish or Fox? A Penetration trying out Case study From IBM X-force purple | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Phish or Fox? A Penetration trying out Case look at From IBM X-force pink November 28, 2018  |  by means of Dimitry Snezhkov Illustration of a fox holding a phishing email attachment: IBM X-Force Red

IBM

Share Phish or Fox? A Penetration trying out Case analyze From IBM X-force purple on Twitter Share Phish or Fox? A Penetration trying out Case look at From IBM X-drive crimson on facebook Share Phish or Fox? A Penetration checking out Case study From IBM X-drive purple on LinkedIn

As you may additionally recognize, IBM X-drive pink is IBM security’s penetration checking out group. The group points knowledgeable, world-class testers who aid businesses discover and manipulate their security vulnerabilities on any and all structures, including utility and hardware instruments. Our motto is “hack anything else to offer protection to every thing.”

This publish aspects a case look at from IBM X-force pink that suggests how we bumped into challenge on a black-box penetration checking out project, worked against a smartly-prepared blue crew, and overcame the obstacles to sooner or later set up an excellent adversarial operation. Let’s take a more in-depth examine what we did to get through security and, greater importantly, what your group can do to enhanced comfortable your company in an ever-evolving adversarial panorama.

A tale of an Undeliverable Payload

On certainly one of our pink group’s contemporary engagements with a client’s blue group, we have been tasked with providing a malicious payload to network users without environment off protection controls or alerting the protecting team.

As a primary attempt, we sent a phishing e mail to believe out the degree of recognition on the different facet. The email message was rigged with our malicious payload, for which we selected the attachment type and a lure that could appear credible. although, the blue team on the other facet must were lying in look forward to suspicious undertaking. every one of our emails become delivered, but our payloads were not. The payloads did not name domestic to the manage server we had install, and we all started getting visits from the shielding crew in the sort of an anti-malware sandbox.

inside minutes, additional sandboxes hit on our command and control (C&C) server’s handler, and soon greater than 12 security supplier clouds had been feasting on the payload. We understood at that element that our payload had been detected, analyzed and commonly shared by the blue team, but given that this changed into a black-field operation, we had little way of understanding what went incorrect after sending out our rigged emails.

If the Phish Fails, send in the Fox

Going again to the drafting board, we realized that we should have triggered the blue crew’s dynamic malware detection programs and controls. We needed to locate a brand new method to bring the payload in a extra hid manner — preferably encrypted — and to have it detonate handiest when it reached its remaining vacation spot to keep away from untimely discovery.

To accomplish that, we had to overcome some hurdles, including:

  • Sidestepping site visitors inspection controls;
  • Opening a siloed channel to send counsel from outside into the organizational networks;
  • reducing repeatable sampling of our externally hosted content material;
  • Minimizing the chance of attribution on the preliminary visit/down load/start levels; and
  • Bypassing URL inspections.
  • Some artistic considering summoned a fine candidate to aid us overcome most controls, in the main since it is a valid provider that people use in daily interactions: Mozilla’s Firefox ship (FFSend).

    before we proceed to explain the use of FFSend, we'd want to observe here that it's a sound tool that will also be used safely, and that it turned into no longer compromised. We also disclosed tips in this blog to Mozilla ahead of its e-book and acquired the business’s help.

    The appropriate Fox for the Job

    FFSend is a sound file transfer device from Mozilla. It has a number of interesting points that make it an outstanding device for clients, and when files are despatched through, its builders point out it's going to generate “a safe, inner most and encrypted hyperlink that automatically expires to make sure your stuff does not continue to be on-line forever.” This makes FFSend a constructive strategy to send deepest files between people in a cozy method.

    To send a file, the sender, gaining access to FFSend via a browser, uploads the file he or she desires to share with the recipient through a simple net interface. he or she receives a URL for a shared hyperlink and can send it to the recipient. The recipient visits the shared link and downloads the file, at which aspect the FFSend service “forgets” the hyperlink and removes shared content from the server.

    Red Team Research

    figure 1: simple circulation of hobbies the usage of FFSend

    From our purple crew’s standpoint, FFSend became a very good healthy for sending encrypted info. Let’s see the way it answered some of the needs we defined.

    FFSend permits for significant file sizes up to 1 GB, which is colossal enough an allowance to each ship a payload and exfiltrate data. This answered our need for a siloed, covert channel into the company. it will encrypt and decrypt the payload for us with an AES-GCM algorithm directly within the internet browser, yet we gained’t should cope with any key generation or distribution. The payload would evade the inspection of intercepting proxies that may unwrap Transport Layer protection (TLS), and would stay deepest and won’t be shared with any party alongside the way, together with Mozilla.

    Red Team Payload Delivery

    determine 2: Schematic view of FFSend’s computerized encryption

    because firefox.com is a relied on domain on most organizational controls, we profit yet yet another abilities by using FFSend. We won’t need to labor to install a pretend site that could elevate suspicion, and we can nonetheless get our file’s hyperlink throughout to the recipient. The trusted Firefox area is additionally extra prone to slip through URL inspection and anti-phishing controls, in addition to blacklists that corporations install to seize malicious content coming from rogue materials.

    Red Team Research

    figure 3: FFSend is regarded a depended on supply

    As for decreasing repeated sampling of the payload, we get that as smartly by means of atmosphere a strict one-time-best restrict on the variety of instances our FFSend hyperlink can be accessed after it’s generated, heading off the sandbox attempts and chance sharing. additionally, FFSend instantly expires hyperlinks after 24 hours, which comfortably makes the route to our payload self-destruct if the target has not opened it. Self-destruction is additionally featured on FFSend’s application application interface (API), so it will possibly also be ordered advert hoc after a link is distributed however before its default expiration.

    Red Team Research

    determine 4: FFSend’s hyperlink expiration and self-destruct schema

    heading off attribution is also simpler when using a legitimate service that implements ephemeral storage of the info it can provide. using this kind of provider allowed us to evade any links lower back to our testers, because there become no account required to send a file, nor was tips on the proprietor of the encrypted statistics sent, required or saved.

    This supposed our ownership of the malicious file can be anonymous, though there would nevertheless be a tie to our originating IP tackle and browser fingerprints. With most tips concealed, we deemed this stage of anonymity first rate ample for the favored result.

    Red Team Payload Delivery

    determine 5: No sender identity required, no attribution links back to purple crew

    establishing a Communications Channel

    With the file sending concern resolved, we still needed a covert verbal exchange channel to aid us set up an ongoing operation with out being ousted by the blue group.

    To deploy a communications channel, we didn't are looking to start from scratch. We decided to use FFSend to make it work as the siloed, covert channel we needed. That turned into one problem solved, but to coordinate the sending and receiving of data over that channel, we might also need a aspect channel of communications to keep away from inspection and detection.

    communique receives inspected by means of a couple of security controls, so it is primary that we mix in with the atmosphere. To do this, we'd should select a communication protocol that would enable us to appear to be everyone else on the network. looking on the usual decisions — Hyper text transfer Protocol relaxed (HTTPS), cyber web handle Message Protocol (ICMP) and area identify equipment (DNS) protocols — we chosen DNS for its good packet ability and typical superior opportunity of blending in with respectable user traffic.

    DNS healthy our deserve to put into effect a data channel to FFSend. also, a command channel can offload to DNS. To make every thing work together, DNS record content material can be encrypted with the equal FFSend shared key used to post the statistics hyperlink, keeping things constant.

    In our command protocol, we will accommodate brief instructions and differentiate between the forms of requests we are looking to project agents with, to run or receive responses on. for example, we can encode guidelines comparable to fetch me <file> or execute <command>. The agent would then carry out the request and publish the results over our FFSend information channel.

    On the wire side, channel interplay will seem like a smartly-formed dynamic DNS request, break free an HTTPS channel used for records. This split would ensure averting site visitors correlation.

    The Foxtrot control Server Rises

    as soon as we knew a way to installation our covert communications, we installation a rogue control server and named it Foxtrot. Foxtrot become a mechanism we used to facilitate communique between any number of the faraway agents.

    Having created Foxtrot with a modified FFSend provider and a DNS aspect channel, IBM X-drive crimson testers had been able to push the preliminary payload to unsuspecting recipients. The payload circumvented dynamic defenses, helped our pink crew gain a foothold within the ambiance and established persistence to freely circulation records throughout intercepting proxies. We have been additionally in a position to execute commands on compromised hosts, even when the shielding group had its safety controls and monitoring grew to become on.

    A notice to the clever Defender

    pink teams have the skills of only wanting to locate one way in, while blue teams are tasked with securing all ways out and in. This one-sided talents skill that defenders must hold a close eye on attack strategies, innovations and techniques (TTPs) and are expecting encryption and covert side channels to challenge latest automated controls.

    After having performed our dreams, we got here away with some advice for defenders that can aid safety groups put together for the TTPs we used.

  • predict to peer the use of customer-side encryption gain extra prominence in adversarial workflows, and choose protection controls as a consequence.
  • are expecting to see split-information and command channels grow in popularity among attackers, as a result of this method can aid break automatic analysis patterns employed by means of average safety equipment. Defenders may still look into behavioral, heuristics-based mostly detection, augmented by means of a completely staffed protection operations middle (SOC) to at all times detect split-channel operations.
  • X-force red encourages protective teams to examine their incident response (IR) strategies towards simulated attacker workflows that make use of customized tooling capabilities.
  • What can groups do right now to get ahead of decided chance actors? Step up your protection with pre-emptive motion in the shape of expert penetration checking out, and ensure the scope of the checking out progressively covers both hardware and application. you should definitely also agree with adopting cognitive options to augment analysts’ capabilities and scale up as attacks develop more generic and complex.

    take heed to the X-drive crimson in motion podcast sequence

    Tags: Cognitive security | Command-and-control (C&C) | Encryption | Firefox | Incident Response (IR) | Mozilla | Penetration testing | Phishing | Phishing electronic mail | protection Operations center (SOC) | Vulnerabilities | X-drive Dimitry Snezhkov

    Sr. Managing consultant, IBM X-drive red

    1 Posts What’s new
  • PodcastExamining the State of Retail Cybersecurity ahead of the 2018 holiday Season
  • EventWebinar: The Resilient conclusion of 12 months evaluate — The precise Cyber safety tendencies in 2018 and Predictions for the yr forward
  • safety Intelligence Podcast Share this text: Share Phish or Fox? A Penetration checking out Case look at From IBM X-force red on Twitter Share Phish or Fox? A Penetration testing Case look at From IBM X-force red on fb Share Phish or Fox? A Penetration trying out Case study From IBM X-drive crimson on LinkedIn more on superior Threats PodcastX-force crimson in motion: spotlight on Vulnerability management With Krissy Safi A man writing code on a desktop computer: PowerShell attack ArticleAn boost in PowerShell assaults: Observations From IBM X-force IRIS Illustration of several envelopes floating above a laptop screen: Necurs ArticleThe Many Faces of Necurs: How the Botnet Spewed hundreds of thousands of spam Emails for Cyber Extortion Illustration of a businesswoman running along a broken chain: Drupalgeddon ArticleThreat Actors Prey on Drupalgeddon Vulnerability to Mass-Compromise websites and Underlying Servers

    Skytap broadcasts Preview software for First Self-provider, On-Demand IBM i software Environments within the Public Cloud | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    IBM (IBM) Down 10.three% when you consider that final income record: Can It Rebound? | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    A month has passed by on the grounds that the final revenue report for IBM (IBM). Shares have misplaced about 10.3% in that time body, underperforming the S&P 500.

    Will the fresh bad fashion continue main as much as its next revenue liberate, or is IBM due for a breakout? earlier than we dive into how investors and analysts have reacted as of late, let's take a short appear on the most contemporary earnings file with the intention to get a higher handle on the essential catalysts.

    IBM’s Q2 effects advantage from cost cutting, lower Share count number

    IBM suggested third-quarter 2018 non-GAAP profits of $3.forty two per share, which beat the Zacks Consensus Estimate by using couple of cents. revenue per share (EPS) multiplied four.9% from the year-ago quarter.

    The 12 months-over-year boom in EPS will also be attributed to strong pre-tax margin working leverage (28 cents contribution) and aggressive share buybacks (19 cents contribution). This turned into in part offset by means of lessen revenues (seven cents poor have an impact on) and higher tax fee (17 cents poor affect).

    Revenues of $18.seventy six billion lagged the Zacks Consensus Estimate of $19.10 billion and declined 2.1% on a 12 months-over-year basis. At constant forex (cc), revenues remained flat.

    IBM pointed out that signings plunged 21% to $eight billion. services backlog declined three% from the yr-ago quarter to $113 billion.

    Geographic earnings details

    Revenues from Americas inched up 1%, driven through continued growth in Canada and Latin america and modest boom within the united states.

    Europe, core-East and Africa reduced 2% from the 12 months-ago quarter, pushed by using decline in Germany and France, partially offset through boom in Spain and the UK.

    Asia-Pacific revenues declined 1% on a 12 months-over-yr foundation with modest increase in Japan.

    Strategic Imperatives boom Continues

    Strategic Imperatives (cloud, analytics, mobility and safety) grew 7% at cc from the yr-in the past quarter to $9.three billion. safety revenues surged 34%. On a trailing 12-month basis, Strategic Imperatives revenues were $39.5 billion, up 13% (11% at cc).

    Cloud revenues surged 13% from the 12 months-in the past quarter to $four.6 billion. The annual run fee for cloud as-a-carrier revenues extended 24% at cc on a 12 months-over-yr groundwork to $11.4 billion.

    Cloud revenues of $19 billion on a trailing 12-month foundation extended 20% (18% at cc) and now accounts for 24% of IBM’s complete revenues.

    Cognitive Revenues Decline

    Cognitive solutions’ revenues-exterior lowered 5.7% year over 12 months (down 5% at cc) to $4.15 billion. Segmental revenues concerning Strategic Imperatives and Cloud declined four% and a pair of%, respectively. Cloud as-a-carrier profits annual run expense turned into $2 billion.

    solutions utility includes choices in strategic verticals like fitness, domain-certain capabilities like analytics and protection, and IBM’s rising technologies of AI and blockchain. The phase additionally includes choices that address horizontal domains like collaboration, commerce and ability. options application revenues lowered 3% yr over year within the quarter.

    IBM stated that in commerce area the infusion of AI into choices like consumer event analytics helped SaaS signings to develop double digit within the quarter. The contemporary launch of Notes Domino version 10, which is optimized for mobile, and supports JavaScript and node.js will boost boom collaboration in 2019.

    Transaction Processing application contains utility that runs mission-important workloads, leveraging IBM’s hardware structures. Revenues fell eight% on a yr-over-12 months basis.

    IBM witnessed growth in trade verticals like health, key areas of analytics and security in the quarter. Watson fitness witnessed vast-primarily based boom in Payer, provider, Imaging and lifestyles Sciences domains.

    all the way through the quarter, the Sugar.IQ software, developed by using Medtronic in partnership with IBM, hit the market. The utility is designed to simplify and enhance each day diabetes administration.

    IBM cited that analytics carried out smartly within the quarter, pushed by records science offerings and IBM Cloud private for statistics offering.

    all the way through the quarter, the enterprise introduced bias detection capabilities and launched new Watson features on the IBM Cloud private platform.

    safety boom become driven by means of choices in orchestration, statistics security and endpoint administration.

    In blockchain, IBM food believe network for meals safety went are living within the quarter. Reatiler Carrefour joined IBM’s blockchain community. The business also jointly announced TradeLens with Maersk that addresses inefficiencies within the global supply chain. IBM currently supports 75 lively blockchain networks.

    international enterprise functions Revenues enhance

    Revenues from international company functions-external segment were $four.13 billion, up 0.9% from the yr-in the past quarter (up three% at cc). Segmental revenues relating Strategic Imperatives grew 9%. Cloud observe surged 18%. Cloud as-a-provider earnings annual run price become $1.9 billion.

    software management revenues declined 1% from the 12 months-ago quarter. although, world manner functions revenues climbed 2%. additionally, Consulting revenues multiplied 7% yr over yr, pushed by potent performance from IBM’s digital business.

    know-how capabilities & Cloud structures: Revenues Dip

    Revenues from know-how features & Cloud structures-external diminished 2% from the year-ago quarter (flat at cc) to $8.29 billion. Segmental revenues bearing on Strategic Imperatives superior 16%, driven by means of hybrid cloud services. Cloud surged 22% from the 12 months-in the past quarter. Cloud as-a-provider earnings annual run expense was $7.5 billion.

    Integration software elevated 1% from the yr-ago quarter. all over the quarter, 95 agencies all over selected IBM Cloud deepest providing. Infrastructure services revenues additionally increased 1% on a yr-over-year foundation.

    besides the fact that children, Technical guide services revenues decreased three% from the yr-in the past quarter.

    energy & z14 force methods Revenues

    methods revenues expanded 0.9% on a yr-over-yr foundation (up 2% at cc) to $1.seventy four billion. Segmental revenues concerning Strategic Imperatives surged 5%, while Cloud revenues declined eight%.

    IBM Z revenues increased 6% year over yr on more than 20% MIPS growth, driven by broad-primarily based adoption of the z14 mainframe.

    energy revenues accelerated 17% from the year-in the past quarter. during the quarter, IBM launched its subsequent era POWER9 processors for midrange and high-conclusion systems that are designed for dealing with advanced analytics, cloud environments and information-intensive workloads in AI, HANA, and UNIX markets.

    IBM also introduced new offerings optimizing each hardware and software for AI. management believes that items like PowerAI imaginative and prescient and PowerAI enterprise will assist drive new customer adoption.

    however, storage hardware revenues declined 6% as a result of susceptible efficiency within the midrange and high end, partly offset with the aid of mighty boom in All Flash Arrays. IBM mentioned that pricing drive in the immensely competitive storage market is hurting revenues. The company announced its new FlashSystems with subsequent technology NVMe expertise during the quarter.

    operating techniques application revenues declined 4%, while techniques Hardware superior four% from the yr-ago quarter.

    eventually, world Financing (includes financing and used device income) revenues lowered 9.1% at cc to $388 million.

    operating particulars

    Non-GAAP gross margin remained unchanged from the year-ago quarter at forty seven.four%. This became IBM’s ideal gross margin performance in years and turned into essentially driven with the aid of one hundred sixty foundation aspects (bps) enlargement in features margin. however, adverse mix in z14 mainframe and software completely offset this growth.

    working price declined four% 12 months over 12 months, because of realization of acquisition synergies and improving operational efficiencies. IBM continues to put money into quick turning out to be fields like hybrid cloud, synthetic intelligence (AI), protection and blockchain.

    Pre-tax margin from carrying on with operations extended 50 bps on a yr-over-yr groundwork to 19.2%.

    Cognitive solutions and international company features section pre-tax margins extended 190 bps and 320 bps, respectively, on a 12 months-over-yr basis. besides the fact that children, technology functions & Cloud structures section pre-tax margin reduced in size a hundred bps.

    programs pre-tax revenue was $209 million down 38% yr over 12 months. world Financing section pre-tax salary jumped 26.7% to $308 million.

    stability Sheet & cash stream particulars

    IBM ended third-quarter 2018 with $14.70 billion in total money and marketable securities compared with $11.93 billion on the conclusion of 2nd-quarter 2018. total debt (including global financing) became $46.9 billion, up $1.four million from the outdated quarter.

    IBM reported money stream from operations (with the exception of global Financing receivables) of $three.1 billion and generated free money movement of $2.2 billion within the quarter.

    in the suggested quarter, the enterprise returned $2.1 billion to shareholders through dividends and share repurchases. at the conclusion of the quarter, the company had $1.4 billion ultimate under present buyback authorization.

    counsel

    IBM reiterated EPS forecast for 2018. Non-GAAP EPS is expected to be as a minimum $13.eighty.

    IBM nonetheless anticipates 2018 free cash move of $12 billion.

    Story Continues

    How Have Estimates Been moving for the reason that Then?

    in the past month, investors have witnessed a downward style in fresh estimates.

    VGM scores

    at the present, IBM has a typical increase rating of C, though it is lagging just a little on the Momentum score front with a D. although, the inventory turned into allotted a grade of A on the value facet, inserting it in the good quintile for this investment approach.

    general, the stock has an aggregate VGM ranking of B. in case you don't seem to be concentrated on one approach, this score is the one you should be interested in.

    Outlook

    Estimates were commonly trending downward for the inventory, and the magnitude of these revisions indicates a downward shift. mainly, IBM has a Zacks Rank #three (hang). We predict an in-line return from the stock in the following few months.

    desire the newest techniques from Zacks investment research? these days, that you may down load 7 optimal stocks for the subsequent 30 Days. click on to get this free document foreign enterprise Machines enterprise (IBM) : Free stock analysis report To read this text on Zacks.com click right here. Zacks investment research


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    AIX Basic Operations V5

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    Joining JSON: Comparing Couchbase N1QL and MongoDB | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Image title

    As NoSQL databases evolved, each added higher level APIs or languages to help programmers to complex things easily. SQL, having done that for relational data, showed the way. In SQL, developers say"what" needs to be done and the database engine figures out the "how." "How" is the efficient procedure/algorithm to execute the statement. Select, join, and project are the basic operations SQL processing. Even in NoSQL systems, when you model data without much normalization, you still need to join a collection of objects. Customers with orders, orders with inventory, inventory with suppliers, suppliers with credits, and so forth. Hence, Couchbase N1QL has supported join operations since its first release. Following that, MongoDB, in version 3.2, added $lookup operator to the aggregation framework to perform the join operations.

    Without an expressive and high-performance query feature, application developers have to do it within the application or export the data to a system that does it. Both expensive propositions.

    In this article, do a comparative study of joins between MongoDB and Couchbase. Joins are unsupported in Cassandra CQL, DynamoDB natively. Applications have to do it themselves or have to use other layers like Spark or Amazon EMR do it separately. So, we won’t cover them in this article.

    Joins in Couchbase

    Couchbase introduced INNER and LEFT OUTER joins starting with Couchbase 4.0 (2015). This supported joins of in a child-to-parent relationship. Children documents (e.g. Orders) can be joined with parent documents (e.g. customer). In 4.5 (2016), Couchbase introduced index joins to query from parent to child joins. In both cases, there was an implied attribute-value to document-key equality predicate, specified by the ON KEY clause.

    Couchbase 5.5 has ANSI standard SQL extended for JSON. It supports INNER JOIN, LEFT OUTER JOIN, and limited RIGHT OUTER join. We’ll be using examples based on Couchbase 5.5.

    Couchbase joins documentation.

    Joins in MongoDB:

    Joins are supported via the $lookup operator within the aggregation framework.

    Following is the excerpt from the MongoDB documentation.

    New in version 3.2.

    Performs a left outer join to an unsharded collection in the same database to filter in documents from the “joined” collection for processing. To each input document, the $lookup stage adds a new array field whose elements are the matching documents from the “joined” collection. The $lookup stage passes these reshaped documents to the next stage.

    Eliot Horowitz, MongoDB CTO, said: “MongoDB aggregation is similar to Unix pipeline. The output of one stage goes into another...[it’s] very procedural. Lets you think about in a very procedural way.”

    MongoDB $lookup.

    Interested in learning more on JOINs? Read this article by Lukas Eder. 

    High-Level Comparison Between Couchbase N1Ql and MongoDB

    Couchbase N1QL: Supports INNER JOIN, LEFT OUTER JOIN and limited RIGHT OUTER JOIN. The query language, like SQL, is declarative. Developers write, tools generate the query to the N1QL syntax. The engine figures out the plan and executes the query.

    MongoDB: Supports LEFT OUTER JOIN for scalar values only. The design of the joins into the MongoDB query language is done help write the query and process data in a procedural way.

    Implication:

  • Left outer join resultset is a superset of inner join resultset. It’s possible to add additional predicates to eliminate the non-matching (null-projected or missing subservient side of the join) documents after the left outer join is performed. That’s like going from San Francisco to Chicago via London. You can do it, but expensive. For the query execution, it takes time, memory, cpu resources affecting the overall performance of the system.
  • N1QL support for joins is declarative. MongoDB language is somewhat procedural. You’ve to separate the predicates, think about the join order between collections, think about when to group, sort, etc. Writing queries with MongoDB aggregation is like writing query plans, step by step.
  • Examples:

    We use the simple travel-sample model and data. Here are the details of the model data.

    We simply exported the data from Couchbase and imported to a mongo database called travel-sample. In MongoDB, the 5 different types of the document (landmark, route, airline, airport, hotel) are stored in 5 collections with respective names.

    Example 1: LEFT OUTER JOIN with ON clause on scalar values.

    Couchbase N1QL

    SELECT count(*) FROM `travel-sample` route LEFT OUTER JOIN `travel-sample` airline ON (route.airlineid = META(airline).id) WHERE route.type = 'route';

    Converted query in MongoDB

    db.route.aggregate([ { $lookup: { from:"airline", localField: "airlineid", foreignField: "_id", as: "airline_docs" } }, { $group: { _id: null, myCount: { $sum: 1 } } }, { $project: { _id: 0 } } ]);

    Observations:

    This is a fairly simple left outer join query joining two collections and then simply counting the total number of documents produced. Notice, unlike N1QL (and SQL), in MongoDB, you’d still have to group the resultset to get the count, even if you have a single group.

    Example 2: List the airports and landmarks in the same city, ordered by the airports.

    Couchbase N1QL:

    SELECT landmark.name AS Landmark_Name, MIN(airport.airportname) AS Airport_Name, MIN(airport.tz) AS Landmark_Time FROM `travel-sample` airport INNER JOIN `travel-sample` landmark ON airport.city = landmark.city WHERE landmark.country = "United States" AND airport.type = "airport" AND landmark.type = "landmark" GROUP BY landmark.name ORDER BY Airport_Name

    Converted query in MongoDB

    db.airport.aggregate([ { $lookup: { from:"landmark", localField: "city", foreignField: "city", as: "aplm_docs" } }, { $match: {"airline_docs": {$ne: []}} }, { $unwind: { path: "$aplm_docs", preserveNullAndEmptyArrays: true }}, { $group: { _id: "$aplm_docs.name", Airport_Name: { $min: "$airportname" } , Landmark_Time: { $min: "$tz"} } }, { $sort : { Airport_Name: 1 } }, { $project: { _id: 1, Airport_Name:1, Landmark_Time:1 } } ]);

    Observations:

  • This query uses INNER JOIN which MongoDB does not have. So, in MongoDB, you first do the lookup join to get the LEFT OUTER JOIN, and then eliminate non-matching, but projected documents (because of the left outer) using the match stage (code: $match: {“airline_docs”: {$ne: []}}).
  • Then, you’ve got to remember the matched documents are in an array data structure, unwind them before you group them by the landmark.name. Then do the sort and final projection.
  • As expected, the MongoDB join query is procedural and you’ve to understand the execution plan and write code for each stage.

    Example 3: Starting from San Francisco, find all the destination airports (those have routes from SFO).

    Couchbase N1QL

    SELECT DISTINCT route.destinationairport FROM `travel-sample` airport JOIN `travel-sample` route ON (airport.faa = route.sourceairport AND route.type = "route") WHERE airport.type = "airport" AND airport.city = "San Francisco" AND airport.country = "United States" ORDER BY route.destinationairport

    Converted query in MongoDB:

    db.airport.aggregate([ { $match: { $and: [ {"type": "airport"}, { city: "San Francisco"}, { "country": "United States"} ] } }, { $lookup: { from:"route", let: { rfaa : "$faa"}, pipeline: [ { $match: { $expr: { $and: [ { $eq: ["$sourceairport", "$$rfaa"]} , { $eq: ["$type", "route"] } ] } } } ], as: "airline_docs" } }, { $match: {"airline_docs": {$ne: []}} }, { $unwind: { path: "$airline_docs", preserveNullAndEmptyArrays: true }}, { $project: { _id:0, "airline_docs.destinationairport" : 1 }}, { $group: { _id : "$airline_docs.destinationairport" } }, { $sort: { _id : 1 }}, ]);

    Observations:

  • The join clause for this query is a bit more complex, with two predicates (airport.faa = (route.sourceairport AND route.type = “route”). This requires a cumbersome pipeline syntax on the MongoDB query.
  • And because you need to differentiate between the two collections, you need another let stage to create the local variables for airport attributes.
  • Like before, it requires an additional match clause to eliminate non-matching (empty) airline docs, followed by grouping and sorting.
  • As you can see visually, the MongoDB query is getting larger and larger to do the same job as Couchbase N1QL.
  • Example 4: Find all the hotels and landmarks in Yosemite. Hotels should have at least 5 likes.

    Couchbase N1QL

    SELECT hotel.name hotel_name, landmark.name landmark_name, landmark.activity FROM `travel-sample` hotel INNER JOIN `travel-sample` landmark ON (hotel.city = landmark.city AND hotel.country = landmark.country AND landmark.type = "landmark") WHERE hotel.type = "hotel" AND hotel.title like "Yosemite%" AND array_length(hotel.public_likes) > 5;

    The converted query in MongoDB

    db.hotel.aggregate([ { $match: { title: { $regex: /^Yosemite/ } }, }, { $lookup: { from:"landmark", let: { hcity : "$city", hcountry : "$country"}, pipeline: [ { $match: { $expr: { $and: [ { $eq: ["$city", "$$hcity"]} , { $eq: ["$country", "$$hcountry"] } ] } } } ], as: "hotel_lm_docs" } }, { $match : {"hotel_lm_docs": { $ne: [] }}}, { $project: {_id:0, hname: "$name", public_likes: 1, hotel_lm_docs:1}}, { $unwind: { path: "$hotel_lm_docs", preserveNullAndEmptyArrays: true }}, { $project: { _id: 1, hname : 1 , "hotel_lm_docs.name" : 1, "hotel_lm_docs.name" : 1, "hotel_lm_docs.activity" : 1, mt5 : {$gt: [ {$size: "$public_likes"}, 5]}}}, { $match: { mt5 : true } }, { $project: {_$id:0}} ]);

    Observation:

  • Translating the LIKE predicate into a regular expression was straightforward, but determining if there were atleast five public_likes was not. Needed additional projection and matching phase to calculate the size of the public_likes at the end.
  • When you have many attributes to match, manipulate and project, you’d have to rename them properly at appropriate stage otherwise, the query can’t reference it. For example, hotel.name had to be renamed to hname before the unwind. Maybe there’s a better way to write this stage!
  • N1QL expressed the query in 370 characters. MongoDB required 956 characters. All this for a two table join. As the complexity increases, the ratio increases as well since the MongoDB query is written in a procedural way.
  • Example 5: Find all the hotels and landmarks in Yosemite. Hotels should have at least 5 likes.

    This is just like Example 4, but do it faster!

    Couchbase N1QL

    SELECT hotel.name hotel_name, landmark.name landmark_name, landmark.activity FROM `travel-sample` hotel INNER JOIN `travel-sample` landmark USE HASH(build) ON (hotel.city = landmark.city AND hotel.country = landmark.country AND landmark.type = "landmark") WHERE hotel.type = "hotel" AND hotel.title like "Yosemite%" AND array_length(hotel.public_likes) > 5;

    Observation:

    The default join method in Couchbase N1QL is nested loop join. This works fine when you have a smaller number of documents involved on each side of the join. When you have a larger data set, typically in reporting queries, nested loop join slows down. Couchbase N1QL has hash joins and this speeds up joins significantly. When each side of join has thousands of documents to millions of documents, the speed increase can be 2x to 20x or more. See the detailed Couchbase blog on ANSI Joins for more information.

    From the documentation and explain plan, it’s unclear what join method MongoDB uses. Some of the blogs indicate that they’ve used a nested loop join to implement the $lookup operator.

    Summary    Couchbase N1QL MongoDB JOIN approach Declarative, like SQL.

    Allows joining between any sized and distributed data set.

    Procedural with some declarative aspects (e.g. index selection).

    Can only join a sharded collection in an unsharded collection. To join two sharded collections, applications will have to write the join algorithm.

    JOINs supported LEFT OUTER JOIN

    INNER JOIN

    RIGHT OUTER JOIN

    $lookup implements the LEFT OUTER JOIN on scalar values. ON-clause support Full expressions.

    Scalars

    Arrays

    Implicit equality

    Pipeline expression

    Arrays should to be $unwind before the $lookup

    JOIN implementation Block Nested Loop

    Hash join with user defined build and probes.

    Nested Loop ON Clause ON clause with any expression. $pipeline expression Array expressions in ON clause Use ANY, IN expressions.

    Supports UNNEST

    Pipeline with $unwind before $match Explain Visual explain and

    JSON explain

    Visual explain and

    JSON explain

    JOIN order Left to right, as specified by the user. The optimizer is rule based. As specified in the pipeline. Nested JOINs Supported via derived tables.

    FROM clause can have subselects which can have joins or subselects in turn.

    No JOIN predicate processing Optimizer processes the join predicates, constant predicates and pushes the predicates to the index automatically. Manual design of predicates for each collection, careful ordering of pipeline stages without full help from the optimizer.

    How about performance? Good question. That’s for a future article!

    And now, a quote:

    “A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts.”

    — William Strunk, Jr. Elements of Style.

    References:

  • Couchbase Documentation
  • MongoDB Documentation
  • ANSI Joins in Couchbase N1QL

  • GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. Please be aware that this is not a trivial task.

    It’s worth taking a brief look at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

    The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a range of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best way to think about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to be used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must be installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

    The support for the GSSAPI is made possible in the directory server through the introduction of a new SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms do exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO support would be GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

    The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the use of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not use them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

    Understanding GSSAPI

    The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a standard interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can be plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on secret key cryptography.

    One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a single programming interface. This is shown in FIGURE 3-2.

    03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

    The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

    What can be confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a big difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An example is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can use Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

    The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide support for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to encourage developers to use the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

    On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that use SSPI and Kerberos.

    The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos development team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not work in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

    Another benefit of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a big benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication method than Kerberos, because it can easily be plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should be able to use it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

    Understanding Kerberos v5

    Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide strong authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

    In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos also offers the ability to add privacy support (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can also be used to provide strong authentication and privacy support for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

    Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

    The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a separate package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as part of the Solaris Easy Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

    For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as part of the Solaris Easy Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:

    http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/7/ds/ds-seas.

    For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:

    http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/content/adminPack/index.html.

    For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

    Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

    Package Name

    Description

    SUNWkdcr

    Kerberos v5 KDC (root)

    SUNWkdcu

    Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)

    SUNWkrbr

    Kerberos version 5 support (Root)

    SUNWkrbu

    Kerberos version 5 support (Usr)

    SUNWkrbux

    Kerberos version 5 support (Usr) (64-bit)

    All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

    How Kerberos Works

    The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

    The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you perform a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you use rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you permission to access the other machine. Transparently means that you do not need to explicitly request a ticket.

    Tickets have certain attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can be forwardable (which means that it can be used on another machine without a new authentication process), or postdated (not valid until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

    You will frequently see the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

    Initial Authentication

    Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for all subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

    A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution Center (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

    A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. Think of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. Like a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for foreign countries, but for remote machines or network services. Like passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets have limited lifetimes. The difference is that Kerberized commands notice that you have a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t have to perform the transactions yourself.

    The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

    Now in possession of a valid ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for all sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

    Subsequent Authentications

    The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps make it appear that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can assign tickets. A principal can be a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal name is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can be a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can also be the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can use lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her usual user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can use two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/california.example.com and lucy/boston.example.com).

    Realms

    A realm is a logical network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the same master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must be defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must include a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should contain at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a block of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, all encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to have a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may be an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system also runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are all on the same machine, but they can be separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms be configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should be applied to all realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a single weak link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to take when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the choice of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as part of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will have to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may seem like a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the rest of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very little security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server be installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC be configured with the same level of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher Block Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators refer to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will be DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption type for the KDC. The type of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). Choose the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can be used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may be up to 1024 characters long and can include any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an example of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key name 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is important that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the use of the -s argument to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not be shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall behavior for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters describe locations of various files and ports to use for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally do not need to be changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may be adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The standard port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to support older clients that still use the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE still listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to have users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the chance of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should be lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the period of time from when a ticket is issued that it may be renewed (using kinit -R). The standard value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may be set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can assign a ticket. In the case of users, it is the same as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may be defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should be used only if the realm will contain temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will have to constantly be renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals do not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer need access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may be defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may be used to ensure that only strong cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not be able to use words found in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a good way to prevent users from creating trivial passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which have a password policy association, so it is good practice to have at least one simple policy associated with all principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may also be used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may be substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf example with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. # Use is subject to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs moving -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by use of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every single administrator in the ACL file. This feature should be used with great care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to be broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a certain administrator only needs to be allowed to have read-access to the database then that person should not be granted full admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for all privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for all privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should be added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users have separate /admin principals to use only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would have two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only be used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the chance of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may be differentiated by the instance part of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is standard practice in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to be /admin instances and others to have no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to have administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only be used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not be granted any administrative privileges, it will be treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given separate passwords and separate permissions from the non-admin principal for the same user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # All rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given full administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file be tightly controlled and that users be granted only the privileges they need to perform their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the same way that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always be used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to be used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always be extracted from the KDC on the same machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, take great care in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could use these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to use Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to use the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package (http://www.openssh.org). Another safe method is to place the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for large installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure method available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm need to have their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time limit (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure way to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). See the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, refer to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is critical that the time be synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service attack on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to be outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then prevent anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must also be secured, including the use of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/jass/

    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/blueprints

    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can be applied to some or all of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must be used to make up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and valid values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that have been used by the principal that cannot be reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must be used before it can be changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can be used before it must be changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can be set as a group and stored as a single policy. Different policies can be defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length be set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes be required. Most people tend to choose easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a good idea to at least set up policies to encourage slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the use of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may be helpful in some environments, to force people to change their passwords periodically. The period is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they get back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to prevent password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users choose long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character limit allows one to choose a small sentence or easy to remember phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is possible to use a dictionary file that can be used to prevent users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy be in effect for all principals in the realm.

    The following is an example password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of old keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This example creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to all user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of old keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference count value indicates how many principals are configured to use the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to all new principals that are not given the same password as the principal name when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should be made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups be done over a network, then these backups should be secured either through the use of encryption or possibly by using a separate network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the same traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always be kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should be continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can be modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should have read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that all Kerberos applications use to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. Also refer to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the behavior of many Kerberos client tools. Each tool may have its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that use the appdefaults section, use the same options; however, they might be set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can have their behavior modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.

    kinit

    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.

    telnet

    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. Refer to the man page for complete information. However, there are several interesting security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains active even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of use and strict security tends to lean in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection be re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a new ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can be used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to false in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can be used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should be used to turn on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not support encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user name is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the same as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to be included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory be removed. The Kerberized versions have the added benefit of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can also use Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients use a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should be re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the same fashion as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.

    rcp

    Kerberized rcp can be used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already have a valid TGT before using rcp if they wish to use the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always use the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.

    login

    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is separate from the standard Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the standard Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a new Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.

    ftp

    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the same as described above for telnet (there is no need for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to use the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection level used for the data transfer can be set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection level to private for all data transfers. The ftp client program does not support or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. All ftp client options are passed on the command line. See the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can increase the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can be securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can be secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to be managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 Active Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to help ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that describe the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the detailed information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an important step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both have the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create new principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you have a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line tool from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that follow fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To be a DNS client, a machine must run the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a single program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that need to know machine names. The resolver’s function is to resolve users’ queries. To do that, it queries a name server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a name server.

    The following example shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the example.com domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain example.com nameserver 192.168.0.0 nameserver 192.168.0.1

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain name in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the end of the domain name. Make sure that you press return immediately after the last character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only name servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. Name server entries have the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS name server. The resolver queries these name servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more detailed information of what the resolv.conf file does, refer to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm name = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain name = example.com

  • Master KDC = kdc1.example.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online help URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you begin this configuration process, make a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You need to change the realm names and the names of the servers. See the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and all domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. See the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s Need moving ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm name definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key name 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is important that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm name is not required if the realm name is equivalent to the domain name in the server’s name space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains all principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might look similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the ability to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match all admin principals. This default could be a security risk, so it is more secure to include a list of all of the admin principals. See the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its object identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism Name Object Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism Name Object Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) must be entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain name in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal kadmin/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal changepw/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you have added all of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start

    Note

    You stop the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To do this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line example is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.example.com Principal "host/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.example.com Enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Re-enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Principal "root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to be used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.example.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.example.com with ->kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you have added all of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to be run by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would need to be done for the server. However, you may want to use this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.example.com Password for root/kdclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: passwd
  • Check and verify that you have a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results show that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you need to verify the completion of all of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

    The example given here assumes a single domain. The KDC may reside on the same machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to take into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to look at what is required to be configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is standard interface that enables you to use a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for all operations during the connection.

    The first item discussed is the new identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will see in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must perform the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, refer to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To Perform the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and get the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the correct suffix for your directory server.

    You need to do this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is important to make use of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you have from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you need to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you need to perform pattern matching to see if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an example GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an example using ldapmodify to do this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To perform this test, type the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and answer the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should be the same as without the -o option.

    If you do not use the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an error occurs.


  • Guide to vendor-specific IT security certifications | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Despite the wide selection of vendor-specific information technology security certifications, identifying which...

    ones best suit your educational or career needs is fairly straightforward.

    This guide to vendor-specific IT security certifications includes an alphabetized table of security certification programs from various vendors, a brief description of each certification and advice for further details.

    Introduction: Choosing vendor-specific information technology security certifications

    The process of choosing the right vendor-specific information technology security certifications is much simpler than choosing vendor-neutral ones. In the vendor-neutral landscape, you must evaluate the pros and cons of various programs to select the best option. On the vendor-specific side, it's only necessary to follow these three steps:

  • Inventory your organization's security infrastructure and identify which vendors' products or services are present.
  • Check this guide (or vendor websites, for products not covered here) to determine whether a certification applies to the products or services in your organization.
  • Decide if spending the time and money to obtain such credentials (or to fund them for your employees) is worth the resulting benefits.
  • In an environment where qualified IT security professionals can choose from numerous job openings, the benefits of individual training and certifications can be hard to appraise.

    Many employers pay certification costs to develop and retain their employees, as well as to boost the organization's in-house expertise. Most see this as a win-win for employers and employees alike, though employers often require full or partial reimbursement for the related costs incurred if employees leave their jobs sooner than some specified payback period after certification.

    There have been quite a few changes since the last survey update in 2015. The Basic category saw a substantial jump in the number of available IT security certifications due to the addition of several Brainbench certifications, in addition to the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Cyber Ops certification, the Fortinet Network Security Expert Program and new IBM certifications. 

    2017 IT security certification changes

    Certifications from AccessData, Check Point, IBM and Oracle were added to the Intermediate category, increasing the total number of certifications in that category, as well. However, the number of certifications in the Advanced category decreased, due to several IBM certifications being retired. 

    Vendor IT security certifications Basic information technology security certifications 

    Brainbench basic security certificationsBrainbench offers several basic-level information technology security certifications, each requiring the candidate to pass one exam. Brainbench security-related certifications include:

  • Backup Exec 11d (Symantec)
  • Check Point FireWall-1 Administration
  • Check Point Firewall-1 NG Administration
  • Cisco Security
  • Microsoft Security
  • NetBackup 6.5 (Symantec)
  • Source: Brainbench Information Security Administrator certifications

    CCNA Cyber OpsPrerequisites: None required; training is recommended.

    This associate-level certification prepares cybersecurity professionals for work as cybersecurity analysts responding to security incidents as part of a security operations center team in a large organization.

    The CCNA Cyber Ops certification requires candidates to pass two written exams.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Cyber Ops

    CCNA SecurityPrerequisites: A valid Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching, Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician or Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification.

    This credential validates that associate-level professionals are able to install, troubleshoot and monitor Cisco-routed and switched network devices for the purpose of protecting both the devices and networked data.

    A person with a CCNA Security certification can be expected to understand core security concepts, endpoint security, web and email content security, the management of secure access, and more. He should also be able to demonstrate skills for building a security infrastructure, identifying threats and vulnerabilities to networks, and mitigating security threats. CCNA credential holders also possess the technical skills and expertise necessary to manage protection mechanisms such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, network access, endpoint security solutions, and web and email security.

    The successful completion of one exam is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Security

    Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of networking; CCSA training and six months to one year of experience with Check Point products are recommended.

    Check Point's foundation-level credential prepares individuals to install, configure and manage Check Point security system products and technologies, such as security gateways, firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs). Credential holders also possess the skills necessary to secure network and internet communications, upgrade products, troubleshoot network connections, configure security policies, protect email and message content, defend networks from intrusions and other threats, analyze attacks, manage user access in a corporate LAN environment, and configure tunnels for remote access to corporate resources.

    Candidates must pass a single exam to obtain this credential.

    Source: Check Point CCSA Certification

    IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0Prerequisites: IBM suggests that candidates be highly familiar with the IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 console. They should have experience taking actions; activating analyses; and using Fixlets, tasks and baselines in the environment. They should also understand patching, component services, client log files and troubleshooting within IBM Endpoint Manager.

    This credential recognizes professionals who use IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 daily. Candidates for this certification should know the key concepts of Endpoint Manager, be able to describe the system's components and be able to use the console to perform routine tasks.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Editor's note: IBM is retiring this certification as of May 31, 2017; there will be a follow-on test available as of April 2017 for IBM BigFix Compliance V9.5 Fundamental Administration, Test C2150-627.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0

    IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud ProtectionPrerequisites: IBM recommends that candidates have experience with network data communications, network security, and the Windows and Mac operating systems.

    This credential pertains mainly to sales engineers who support the Trusteer Fraud product portfolio for web fraud management, and who can implement a Trusteer Fraud solution. Candidates must understand Trusteer product functionality, know how to deploy the product, and be able to troubleshoot the product and analyze the results.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud Protection

    McAfee Product SpecialistPrerequisites: None required; completion of an associated training course is highly recommended.

    McAfee information technology security certification holders possess the knowledge and technical skills necessary to install, configure, manage and troubleshoot specific McAfee products, or, in some cases, a suite of products.

    Candidates should possess one to three years of direct experience with one of the specific product areas.

    The current products targeted by this credential include:

  • McAfee Advanced Threat Defense products
  • McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator and VirusScan products
  • McAfee Network Security Platform
  • McAfee Host Intrusion Prevention
  • McAfee Data Loss Prevention Endpoint products
  • McAfee Security Information and Event Management products
  • All credentials require passing one exam.

    Source: McAfee Certification Program

    Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA)Prerequisites: None; training recommended.

    This credential started as an academic-only credential for students, but Microsoft made it available to the general public in 2012.

    There are 10 different MTA credentials across three tracks (IT Infrastructure with five certs, Database with one and Development with four). The IT Infrastructure track includes a Security Fundamentals credential, and some of the other credentials include security components or topic areas.

    To earn each MTA certification, candidates must pass the corresponding exam. 

    Source: Microsoft MTA Certifications

    Fortinet Network Security Expert (NSE)Prerequisites: Vary by credential.

    The Fortinet NSE program has eight levels, each of which corresponds to a separate network security credential within the program. The credentials are:

  • NSE 1 -- Understand network security concepts.
  • NSE 2 -- Sell Fortinet gateway solutions.
  • NSE 3 (Associate) -- Sell Fortinet advanced security solutions.
  • NSE 4 (Professional) -- Configure and maintain FortiGate Unified Threat Management products.
  • NSE 5 (Analyst) -- Implement network security management and analytics.
  • NSE 6 (Specialist) – Understand advanced security technologies beyond the firewall.
  • NSE 7 (Troubleshooter) -- Troubleshoot internet security issues.
  • NSE 8 (Expert) -- Design, configure, install and troubleshoot a network security solution in a live environment.
  • NSE 1 is open to anyone, but is not required. The NSE 2 and NSE 3 information technology security certifications are available only to Fortinet employees and partners. Candidates for NSE 4 through NSE 8 should take the exams through Pearson VUE.

    Source: Fortinet NSE

    Symantec Certified Specialist (SCS)This security certification program focuses on data protection, high availability and security skills involving Symantec products.

    To become an SCS, candidates must select an area of focus and pass an exam. All the exams cover core elements, such as installation, configuration, product administration, day-to-day operation and troubleshooting for the selected focus area.

    As of this writing, the following exams are available:

  • Exam 250-215: Administration of Symantec Messaging Gateway 10.5
  • Exam 250-410: Administration of Symantec Control Compliance Suite 11.x
  • Exam 250-420: Administration of Symantec VIP
  • Exam 250-423: Administration of Symantec IT Management Suite 8.0
  • Exam 250-424: Administration of Data Loss Prevention 14.5
  • Exam 250-425: Administration of Symantec Cyber Security Services
  • Exam 250-426: Administration of Symantec Data Center Security -- Server Advanced 6.7
  • Exam 250-427: Administration of Symantec Advanced Threat Protection 2.0.2
  • Exam 250-428: Administration of Symantec Endpoint Protection 14
  • Exam 250-513: Administration of Symantec Data Loss Prevention 12
  • Source: Symantec Certification

    Intermediate information technology security certifications 

    AccessData Certified Examiner (ACE)Prerequisites: None required; the AccessData BootCamp and Advanced Forensic Toolkit (FTK) courses are recommended.

    This credential recognizes a professional's proficiency using AccessData's FTK, FTK Imager, Registry Viewer and Password Recovery Toolkit. However, candidates for the certification must also have moderate digital forensic knowledge and be able to interpret results gathered from AccessData tools.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one online exam (which is free). Although a boot camp and advanced courses are available for a fee, AccessData provides a set of free exam preparation videos to help candidates who prefer to self-study.

    The certification is valid for two years, after which credential holders must take the current exam to maintain their certification.

    Source: Syntricate ACE Training

    Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Security Prerequisites: CCNA Security or any CCIE certification.

    This Cisco credential recognizes professionals who are responsible for router, switch, networking device and appliance security. Candidates must also know how to select, deploy, support and troubleshoot firewalls, VPNs and intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system products in a networking environment.

    Successful completion of four exams is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNP Security

    Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE)Prerequisite: CCSA certification R70 or later.

    This is an intermediate-level credential for security professionals seeking to demonstrate skills at maximizing the performance of security networks.

    A CCSE demonstrates a knowledge of strategies and advanced troubleshooting for Check Point's GAiA operating system, including installing and managing VPN implementations, advanced user management and firewall concepts, policies, and backing up and migrating security gateway and management servers, among other tasks. The CCSE focuses on Check Point's VPN, Security Gateway and Management Server systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSE program

    Cisco Cybersecurity SpecialistPrerequisites: None required; CCNA Security certification and an understanding of TCP/IP are strongly recommended.

    This Cisco credential targets IT security professionals who possess in-depth technical skills and knowledge in the field of threat detection and mitigation. The certification focuses on areas such as event monitoring, event analysis (traffic, alarm, security events) and incident response.

    One exam is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems Cybersecurity Specialist

    Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)Prerequisites: None required; training is recommended.

    The CSSA exam covers basic administration of SonicWall appliances and the network and system security behind such appliances.

    Classroom training is available, but not required to earn the CSSA. Candidates must pass one exam to become certified.

    Source: SonicWall Certification programs

    EnCase Certified Examiner (EnCE)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend 64 hours of authorized training or have 12 months of computer forensic work experience. Completion of a formal application process is also required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the use of Guidance Software's EnCase computer forensics tools and software.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a practical component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCE

    EnCase Certified eDiscovery Practitioner (EnCEP)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend one of two authorized training courses and have three months of experience in eDiscovery collection, processing and project management. A formal application process is also required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the use of Guidance Software's EnCase eDiscovery software, and it recognizes their proficiency in eDiscovery planning, project management and best practices, from legal hold to file creation.

    EnCEP-certified professionals possess the technical skills necessary to manage e-discovery, including the search, collection, preservation and processing of electronically stored information in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a scenario component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCEP Certification Program

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium V10.0Prerequisites: IBM recommends basic knowledge of operating systems and databases, hardware or virtual machines, networking and protocols, auditing and compliance, and information security guidelines.

    IBM Security Guardium is a suite of protection and monitoring tools designed to protect databases and big data sets. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium credential is aimed at administrators who plan, install, configure and manage Guardium implementations. This may include monitoring the environment, including data; defining policy rules; and generating reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security Guardium Certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6Prerequisites: IBM recommends a working knowledge of IBM Security QRadar SIEM Administration and IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager, as well as general knowledge of networking, risk management, system administration and network topology.

    QRadar Risk Manager automates the risk management process in enterprises by monitoring network device configurations and compliance. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6 credential certifies administrators who use QRadar to manage security risks in their organization. Certification candidates must know how to review device configurations, manage devices, monitor policies, schedule tasks and generate reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager Certification

    IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1Prerequisites: IBM recommends a basic knowledge of the IBM Security Network Intrusion Prevention System (GX) V4.6.2, IBM Security Network Protection (XGS) V5.3.1, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server operating system administration and network security.

    The Security SiteProtector System enables organizations to centrally manage their network, server and endpoint security agents and appliances. The IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1 credential is designed to certify security analysts who use the SiteProtector System to monitor and manage events, monitor system health, optimize SiteProtector and generate reports.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Security SiteProtector Certification

    Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Certified Security AdministratorPrerequisite: Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator.

    This credential aims to certify experienced Solaris 10 administrators with security interest and experience. It's a midrange credential that focuses on general security principles and features, installing systems securely, application and network security, principle of least privilege, cryptographic features, auditing, and zone security.

    A single exam -- geared toward the Solaris 10 operating system or the OpenSolaris environment -- is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Oracle Solaris Certification

    Oracle Mobile SecurityPrerequisites: Oracle recommends that candidates understand enterprise mobility, mobile application management and mobile device management; have two years of experience implementing Oracle Access Management Suite Plus 11g; and have experience in at least one other Oracle product family.

    This credential recognizes professionals who create configuration designs and implement the Oracle Mobile Security Suite. Candidates must have a working knowledge of Oracle Mobile Security Suite Access Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Administrative Console, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Notification Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Containerization and Oracle Mobile Security Suite Provisioning and Policies. They must also know how to deploy the Oracle Mobile Security Suite.

    Although the certification is designed for Oracle PartnerNetwork members, it is available to any candidate. Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: Oracle Mobile Security Certification

    RSA Archer Certified Administrator (CA)Prerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, administer, maintain and troubleshoot the RSA Archer Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) platform.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on integration and configuration management, security administration, and the data presentation and communication features of the RSA Archer GRC product.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Archer Certification

    RSA SecurID Certified Administrator (RSA Authentication Manager 8.0)Prerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, maintain and administer enterprise security systems based on RSA SecurID system products and RSA Authentication Manager 8.0.

    RSA SecurID CAs can operate and maintain RSA SecurID components within the context of their operational systems and environments; troubleshoot security and implementation problems; and work with updates, patches and fixes. They can also perform administrative functions and populate and manage users, set up and use software authenticators, and understand the configuration required for RSA Authentication Manager 8.0 system operations.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Authentication Manager Certification

    RSA Security Analytics CAPrerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    This Dell EMC certification is aimed at security professionals who configure, manage, administer and troubleshoot the RSA Security Analytics product. Knowledge of the product's features, as well the ability to use the product to identify security concerns, are required.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on RSA Security Analytics functions and capabilities, configuration, management, monitoring and troubleshooting.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Security Analytics

    Advanced information technology security certifications 

    CCIE SecurityPrerequisites: None required; three to five years of professional working experience recommended.

    Arguably one of the most coveted certifications around, the CCIE is in a league of its own. Having been around since 2002, the CCIE Security track is unrivaled for those interested in dealing with information security topics, tools and technologies in networks built using or around Cisco products and platforms.

    The CCIE certifies that candidates possess expert technical skills and knowledge of security and VPN products; an understanding of Windows, Unix, Linux, network protocols and domain name systems; an understanding of identity management; an in-depth understanding of Layer 2 and 3 network infrastructures; and the ability to configure end-to-end secure networks, as well as to perform troubleshooting and threat mitigation.

    To achieve this certification, candidates must pass both a written and lab exam. The lab exam must be passed within 18 months of the successful completion of the written exam.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCIE Security Certification

    Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert (CCMSE)Prerequisites: CCSE certification R75 or later and 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products.

    This advanced-level credential is aimed at those seeking to learn how to install, configure and troubleshoot Check Point's Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.

    Professionals are expected to know how to migrate physical firewalls to a virtualized environment, install and manage an MDM environment, configure high availability, implement global policies and perform troubleshooting.

    Source: Check Point CCMSE

    Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM)Prerequisites: CCSE R70 or later and experience with Windows Server, Unix, TCP/IP, and networking and internet technologies.

    The CCSM is the most advanced Check Point certification available. This credential is aimed at security professionals who implement, manage and troubleshoot Check Point security products. Candidates are expected to be experts in perimeter, internal, web and endpoint security systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass a written exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSM Certification

    Certified SonicWall Security Professional (CCSP)Prerequisites: Attendance at an advanced administration training course.

    Those who achieve this certification have attained a high level of mastery of SonicWall products. In addition, credential holders should be able to deploy, optimize and troubleshoot all the associated product features.

    Earning a CSSP requires taking an advanced administration course that focuses on either network security or secure mobile access, and passing the associated certification exam.

    Source: SonicWall CSSP certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Tivoli Monitoring V6.3Prerequisites: Security-related requirements include basic knowledge of SSL, data encryption and system user accounts.

    Those who attain this certification are expected to be capable of planning, installing, configuring, upgrading and customizing workspaces, policies and more. In addition, credential holders should be able to troubleshoot, administer and maintain an IBM Tivoli Monitoring V6.3 environment.

    Candidates must successfully pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Tivoli Certified Administrator

    Master Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)The Master CSSA is an intermediate between the base-level CSSA credential (itself an intermediate certification) and the CSSP.

    To qualify for Master CSSA, candidates must pass three (or more) CSSA exams, and then email training@sonicwall.com to request the designation. There are no other charges or requirements involved.

    Source: SonicWall Master CSSA

    Conclusion 

    Remember, when it comes to selecting vendor-specific information technology security certifications, your organization's existing or planned security product purchases should dictate your options. If your security infrastructure includes products from vendors not mentioned here, be sure to check with them to determine if training or certifications on such products are available.

    About the author:Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, Ed has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML. Ed also blogs regularly for TechTarget (Windows Enterprise Desktop), Tom's IT Pro and GoCertify.



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    IBM 000-190 Exam (AIX Basic Operations V5) Detailed Information



    References:


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    Study notes to cover complete exam syllabus - Killexams.com
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